350,000.000 (?) years ago Arbroath's 'Upper & Lower red sandstone' are formed, possibly around the equator.
425,000,000 (?) years ago: The meeting of 3 continental plates, Baltica, Laurentia (including what is now Scotland & NW Ireland), and Avalonia (including what will become England & Wales), and previously separated by the 'Iapetus Ocean', come together, forming Laurasia. The 'collision line', with Avalonia being driven at a shallow angle beneath Laurentia, is known as the Iapetus Suture, which in modern Britain is north of Hadrian's Wall, close to the 21st century Scottish/English border. The pressure creates the 'Scottish' west highlands & grampian mountains, pushing them at least as high as 21st century modern Alps. So Scotland is therefore not only culturally different from England, but geologically too - in the most ancient & dramatic way imaginable !
50,000,000 years ago: Laurasia begins to break up, Laurentia (North America & Greenland) receding & the North Atlantic being formed.
14,000 BC The last ice sheet begins to retreat westwards from it's limit east off Fife Ness. The sea level is as much as 45 metres higher than now.
12500 BC End of the last ice age.
11000 BC (Paleolithic) The sea reaches inland over low lying areas as far as today's Aberfoyle.
8500 BC (Mesolithic) The earliest evidence of mesolithic human settlement in what will become Scotland.
8000 BC (Mesolithic) The sea recedes to today's level or less.
6000 BC (Mesolithic) The land bridge to the rest of 'Europe' is submerged, forming the islands later known as the British Isles.
4,900 - 2,000 BC (Neolithic) An eight knobbed carved stone ball from this period will be found
whilst digging by the wall of St Vigeans Church tower.
3500 BC (Neolithic) Sea level rises to 10 metres higher than today's, before again falling. Much
of Scotland's coast in the 21st century, Arbroath's included, will show evidence of earlier raised
shorelines - take a walk along the top of Victoria Park !
3500 BC (Neolithic) Material taken from postholes at Douglasmuir, Froickheim, carbon date to
2500 BC (Neolithic) Round houses date from around this time. Right is possible evidence of one at Chapelton.
2000 - 800 BC ( Bronze Age ) Dickmontlaw cairn is a burial site from this period -
perhaps around 1,000 B.C. Local tradition maintains that the Baron held his courts here.
2000 - 800 BC ( Bronze Age ) Short-Cist burials near West Newbigging date from this period.
Items will be unearthed in 1813 AD including pottery urns, a pair of silver discs & a gold armlet.
2000 - 800 BC ( Bronze Age ) A bronze ring (or armlet), bronze needle & stone cups from this
period will be found at West Grange of Conon in 1859 AD.
2000 - 800 BC ( Bronze Age ) A complete leaf-shaped bronze age sword from this period will be
discovered while ploughing at Drumyellow Farm. (source Angus SMR)
2000 - 800 BC ( Bronze Age ) several stone coffins, along with earthen jars containing ashes
from this period will be found in the Parish of St Vigeans during the 18th century AD.
(source Angus SMR)
2000 - 800 BC ( Bronze Age ) Two complete food vessels, fragments of a third and rim fragments
of probable cinerary urn - in the care of Hospitalfield House Museum.
1200 The climate has become colder & wetter.
800 - 700 BC (Iron Age) The first hill forts are constructed in Scotland. (source: BBC)
800 - 0 BC (Iron Age) Souterrains from this period are to be found near Wardykes (Eastern)
Cemetery, West Grange of Conon, Carlungie & Ardestie.
800 - 0 BC (Iron Age) Castle Rock (promontary fort), Auchmithie, dates from this period.
(source Angus SMR)
700 BC - 43 AD (Iron Age - Roman Era) Small farming settlements with networks of fields
start to develop. (source BBC)
500 - 0 (Iron Age) The first brochs and stone towers are constructed in Scotland. (source BBC)
200 - 0 (Iron Age) Highly-skilled gold & bronze smiths are creating decorative objects. (source BBC)
The following are prehistoric sites / discovered artifacts where the period to which they belong is
uncertain ( source Angus SMR ) :
Lud Castle: Promontory fort, south of Auchmithie. A spindle whorl from this site in the care of
Carlingheugh Bay: A small pointed flint flake exists - a surface find at this location. In the care
of Angus District Museums.
Gaylet Pot: Just south of Lud Castle. Site of a possible fort.
Elliot: A tapered (80m x 70m - 35m) defended promomtory site will be excavated 1998-99 AD,
revealing two burial cists and a dug grave containing a copper alloy ring and an iron object, but
no human remains. (source Angus SMR)
David's Hill (N. of Mains of Letham). The remains of an enclosed settlement (shown by crop marks
in oblique aerial photographs). Lying on a prominent hillock, a dominant feature within the local
landscape, it comprises of the remains of a sub-circular enclosure (diameter 25m, within a 4-5m ditch).
Appears to have a wide entrance on SE side, it's NW side perhaps defined by the steep slopes down to
the Brothock Burn. (source Angus SMR)
Laurentia - Baltica - Avalonia
( click for enlarged view )
Choose a beach........now (left).........or then (right). Victoria Park today