350,000.000 (?)  years ago Arbroath's 'Upper & Lower red sandstone' are formed, possibly around the equator.













425,000,000  (?) years ago: The meeting of 3 continental plates, Baltica, Laurentia (including what is now Scotland & NW Ireland), and Avalonia (including what will become England & Wales), and previously separated by the 'Iapetus Ocean', come together, forming Laurasia. The 'collision line', with Avalonia being driven at a shallow angle beneath Laurentia, is known as the Iapetus Suture, which in modern Britain is north of Hadrian's Wall, close to the 21st century Scottish/English border. The pressure creates the 'Scottish' west highlands & grampian mountains, pushing them at least as high as 21st century modern Alps.  So Scotland is therefore not only culturally different from England, but geologically too - in the most ancient & dramatic way imaginable !


50,000,000  years ago: Laurasia begins to break up, Laurentia (North America & Greenland) receding & the North Atlantic being formed.  

14,000  BC  The last ice sheet begins to retreat westwards from it's limit east off Fife Ness. The sea level is as much as 45 metres higher than now.

12500  BC  End of the last ice age.

11000  BC  (Paleolithic) The sea reaches inland over low lying areas as far as today's Aberfoyle.

8500  BC  (Mesolithic)  The earliest evidence of mesolithic human settlement in what will become Scotland.

8000  BC  (Mesolithic)  The sea recedes to today's level or less.

6000  BC  (Mesolithic)  The land bridge to the rest of 'Europe' is submerged, forming the islands later known as the British Isles.














4,900 - 2,000 BC  (Neolithic)  An eight knobbed carved stone ball from this period will be found

whilst digging by the wall of St Vigeans Church tower.

3500  BC  (Neolithic)  Sea level rises to 10 metres higher than today's, before again falling. Much

of Scotland's coast in the 21st century, Arbroath's included, will show evidence of earlier raised

shorelines - take a walk along the top of Victoria Park !

3500  BC  (Neolithic)  Material taken from postholes at Douglasmuir, Froickheim, carbon date to

this period.

2500  BC  (Neolithic) Round houses date from around this time. Right is possible evidence of one at Chapelton.




















2000 - 800  BC ( Bronze Age ) Dickmontlaw cairn is a burial site from this period -

perhaps around 1,000 B.C.  Local tradition maintains that the Baron held his courts here.

2000 - 800  BC ( Bronze Age ) Short-Cist burials near West Newbigging date from this period.

Items will be unearthed in 1813 AD including  pottery urns, a pair of silver discs & a gold armlet.

2000 - 800 BC  ( Bronze Age )  A bronze ring (or armlet), bronze needle & stone cups from this

period will be found at West Grange of Conon in 1859 AD.

2000 - 800  BC ( Bronze Age )  A complete leaf-shaped bronze age sword from this period will be

discovered while ploughing at Drumyellow Farm.  (source Angus SMR)

2000 - 800 BC  ( Bronze Age )  several stone coffins, along with earthen jars containing ashes

from this period will be found in the Parish of St Vigeans during the 18th century AD.

(source Angus SMR)

2000 - 800 BC ( Bronze Age ) Two complete food vessels, fragments of a third and rim fragments

of probable cinerary urn - in the care of Hospitalfield House Museum.

1200  The climate has become colder & wetter.

800 - 700 BC  (Iron Age)  The first hill forts are constructed in Scotland.  (source: BBC)

800 - 0  BC (Iron Age)  Souterrains from this period are to be found near Wardykes (Eastern)

Cemetery, West Grange of Conon, Carlungie & Ardestie.

800 - 0  BC (Iron Age)  Castle Rock (promontary fort), Auchmithie, dates from this period.  

(source Angus SMR)

700 BC - 43 AD  (Iron Age - Roman Era)  Small farming settlements with networks of fields

start to develop.  (source BBC)

500 - 0  (Iron Age)  The first brochs and stone towers are constructed in Scotland.  (source BBC)

200 - 0  (Iron Age)  Highly-skilled gold & bronze smiths are creating decorative objects.  (source BBC)


















The following are prehistoric sites / discovered artifacts where the period to which they belong is

uncertain  ( source Angus SMR ) :


Lud Castle:   Promontory fort, south of Auchmithie. A spindle whorl from this site in the care of

Dundee Museum.

Carlingheugh Bay:  A small pointed flint flake exists - a surface find at this location. In the care

of Angus District Museums.

Gaylet Pot:  Just south of Lud Castle. Site of a possible fort.

Elliot:  A tapered (80m x 70m - 35m) defended promomtory site will be excavated 1998-99 AD,

revealing two burial cists and a dug grave containing a copper alloy ring and an iron object, but

no human remains.  (source Angus SMR)

David's Hill (N. of Mains of Letham). The remains of an enclosed settlement (shown by crop marks

in oblique aerial photographs). Lying on a prominent hillock, a dominant feature within the local

landscape, it comprises of the remains of a sub-circular enclosure (diameter 25m, within a 4-5m ditch).

Appears to have a wide entrance on SE side, it's NW side perhaps defined by the steep slopes down to

the Brothock Burn.  (source Angus SMR)

Auchmithie - Lud Castle - Castle Rock 4512889617_486x365.jpg



4513425911_390x249.jpg 4513489620_161x162.jpg

Paleolithic =

before 8,800 BC


Mesolithic =

8.800-4,900 BC


Neolithic =

4,900-2,000 BC


Bronze Age =

2,000-800 BC


Iron Age =

from 800 BC - 0


Important Note !


These sentences

are the editor's simplistic interpretation of rather brief readings on the subject. Feel free to educate him...


Laurentia - Baltica - Avalonia

( click for enlarged view )

Raised beach - Victoria Park

Choose a beach........now (left).........or then (right).    Victoria Park today


Cairnconon - Drumyellow map North of Arbroath area